Written by Super User on . Posted in Uncategorised


Bio-toilet is a decomposition mechanized toilet system which decomposes human excretory waste in the digester tank using specific high graded bacteria (aerobic or anaerobic) further converting it into methane gas, Carbon dioxide gas and water.

How does a Bio Digester Tank System work A consortium of anaerobic bacteria has been formulated and adopted to work at temp as low as 5 degree' This is the component which acts as inoculums (seed material) to the bildigester and converts the organic waste into methane and carbon dioxide. The anaerobic process inactivates the pathogens responsible for water borne diseases. Biodigester serves as reaction vessel for bio-methanation and provides the anaerobic conditions and required temperature for the bacteria. The optimum temp is maintained by microbial heat, insulation of the reactor and solar heating at places wherever required.

Bio toilet is completely different toilet as compare to the traditional restrooms. lt saves a lot of water and helps in keeping the environment clean. Bio-digester technology treats human waste at the source. A collection of anaerobic bacteria that has been adapted to work at temperatures as low as 5"C and as high as 50"C act as inocula (seed material) to the bio- digesters and convert the organic human waste into water, methane, and carbon-dioxide gases.

The anaerobic Process inactivates the Pathogens responsible for water-borne diseases and treats the shit without
the use of an external energy source.

Under the bio-toilet concept of the DRDO, the bio- digester tank in every toilet is filled with inoculums containing four types of bacteria. The water trap system in the toilet prevents air from getting into the tank, the human waste is Processed by anaerobic bacteria in seven chambers in the tank and the methane gas is allowed to escape into the air.

After the completion of this process, only methane, carbon dioxide gases and water remains. These gases are left in the environment whereas water can be recycled and used in toilets again.

Few Advantages

  • 99 Percent aerobic treatment
  • Doesn't require much space
  • High effluent quality
  • Regarding Railwaytraditionaltoilets; Human excreta was released on the rail tracks directty causing damage to the metal of railway tracks as well as spreading the dirt in the environment. Now it will not happen.
  • No Energy dependence
  • Low cost of construction,
  • Easyto build
  • Proven technology


  • Don't overload your BDTS by discharging more than it can handle Overloading will lead to flooding or overflow'
  • Do not waste any water. Use water sensibly'
  • Do not flush your toilet unnecessarily.
  • Dispose of these wastes as refuse.
  • Don't deposit any solid waste other than human toilet waste'
  • Put all other waster into a garbage bin'
  • Fit a screen at every sink, wash basin and floor drain.
  • Don't deposit excessive oil or chemicals into your BDTS. Oilwill clog up pores in the soil around the soak away pit. Chemicals are generally toxic to the environment and kill the bacteria that have charged in the BDTS.